Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents, and the age limit usually ranges from birth up to 18. The smaller body of an infant or neonate is substantially different physiologically from that of an adult. Congenital defects, genetic variance, and developmental issues are of greater concern to pediatricians than they often are to adult physicians.

Subspecialties of pediatrics include:

Neonatology refers to a specialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn infant. It is a hospital based specialty and is usually practiced in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Neonatal care may be needed due to prematurity low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, congenital malformations (birth defects), sepsis, and pulmonary hyperplasia or birth asphyxias.

According to a recent study: Birth and Neonatal Care Injuries: A Special Aspect of Newborn Surgery, birth trauma occurs in 2 to 7% of all deliveries, which is usually associated with an increase in both, mortality and morbidity rate. Post natal trauma numbers can be up to three times higher if compared to birth trauma itself. 

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